Badger2040 and BME680

I’ve added the Adafruit BME680 (stemmaQT version) to my Badger2040 (micropython 1.18.7 image). I’ve tried to adapt various examples of BME680 code to work on the badger but seem to run into similar issues.

I’m using Thonny and landed on the following code:

import time
import bme680
import pimoroni_i2c
import badger2040
import machine


badger = badger2040.Badger2040()
badger.update_speed(badger2040.UPDATE_FAST)

#PINS_BREAKOUT_GARDEN = {"sda": 4, "scl": 5}
PINS_PICO_EXPLORER = {"sda": 20, "scl": 21}

TEXT_SIZE = 0.7

button_a = machine.Pin(badger2040.BUTTON_A, machine.Pin.IN, machine.Pin.PULL_DOWN)
i2c = pimoroni_i2c.PimoroniI2C(**PINS_PICO_EXPLORER)
#i2c = PimoroniI2C(sda=20, scl=21)
#i2c=PimoroniI2C(0,sda=Pin(20), SCL=Pin(21), freq=400000)

bme = bme680.BME680_I2C(i2c)


badger.pen(0)
badger.text("Eva's Temp Checker", 5, 20, TEXT_SIZE)
badger.update()
time.sleep(5)
badger.pen(15)
badger.clear()

while True:
    temperature, pressure, humidity, gas, status, _, _ = bmp.read()
    heater = "Stable" if status & STATUS_HEATER_STABLE else "Unstable"
    print("{:0.2f}c, {:0.2f}Pa, {:0.2f}%, {:0.2f} Ohms, Heater: {}".format(
        temperature, pressure, humidity, gas, heater))
    temp = str(round(temperature,1))
    press = str(round(pressure,1))
    humid = str(round(humidity,1))
    print(temp, press, humid)
    badger.pen(0)
    badger.text("Temperature "+temp+"C", 2, 10, TEXT_SIZE)
    badger.text("Pressure "+press+"Pa", 2, 30, TEXT_SIZE)
    badger.text("Humidity "+humid+"%", 2, 50, TEXT_SIZE)
    badger.update()
    time.sleep(5.0)
    badger.pen(15)
    badger.clear()

When I run this on the badger, the console shows:

Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 21, in <module>
  File "/lib/bme680.py", line 340, in __init__
  File "/lib/bme680.py", line 102, in __init__
  File "/lib/bme680.py", line 355, in _write
AttributeError: 'pimoroni_i2c' object has no attribute 'writeto_mem'

The BME680 is detected when I scan the i2c bus:

Scan i2c bus…
i2c devices found: 3
Decimal address: 28 | Hex address: 0x1c
Decimal address: 106 | Hex address: 0x6a
Decimal address: 119 | Hex address: 0x77 ← the BME680

I’m at a loss. I appreciate any insights or suggestions on how to get the BME680 working :)

Try changing
bme = bme680.BME680_I2C(i2c)
to
bme = BreakoutBME680(i2c,0x77)
And see how that works.

Hi,
thx for your response. This does not work with the BME680 library as the name is not defined:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File “”, line 22, in
NameError: name ‘BreakoutBME68X’ isn’t defined

I did try it with the adafruit_bme680 library

Traceback (most recent call last):
File “”, line 22, in
AttributeError: ‘module’ object has no attribute ‘breakout_BME680X’

and with the breakout_bme68x library. Maybe there is a difference between the Adafruit BME680 StemmaQT and a BME680 breakout board?

Traceback (most recent call last):
File “”, line 18, in
RuntimeError: BreakoutBME68X: breakout not found when initialising

FYI, I’m using this micropython driver: bme680.py

# The MIT License (MIT)
#
# Copyright (c) 2017 ladyada for Adafruit Industries
#
# Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
# of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
# in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
# to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
# copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
# furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
#
# The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
# all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
#
# THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
# IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
# FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
# AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
# LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
# OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
# THE SOFTWARE.

# We have a lot of attributes for this complex sensor.
# pylint: disable=too-many-instance-attributes

"""
`bme680` - BME680 - Temperature, Humidity, Pressure & Gas Sensor
================================================================

MicroPython driver from BME680 air quality sensor, based on Adafruit_bme680

* Author(s): Limor 'Ladyada' Fried of Adafruit
             Jeff Raber (SPI support)
             and many more contributors
"""

import time
import math
from micropython import const
from ubinascii import hexlify as hex
try:
    import struct
except ImportError:
    import ustruct as struct

#    I2C ADDRESS/BITS/SETTINGS
#    -----------------------------------------------------------------------
_BME680_CHIPID = const(0x61)

_BME680_REG_CHIPID = const(0xD0)
_BME680_BME680_COEFF_ADDR1 = const(0x89)
_BME680_BME680_COEFF_ADDR2 = const(0xE1)
_BME680_BME680_RES_HEAT_0 = const(0x5A)
_BME680_BME680_GAS_WAIT_0 = const(0x64)

_BME680_REG_SOFTRESET = const(0xE0)
_BME680_REG_CTRL_GAS = const(0x71)
_BME680_REG_CTRL_HUM = const(0x72)
_BME280_REG_STATUS = const(0xF3)
_BME680_REG_CTRL_MEAS = const(0x74)
_BME680_REG_CONFIG = const(0x75)

_BME680_REG_PAGE_SELECT = const(0x73)
_BME680_REG_MEAS_STATUS = const(0x1D)
_BME680_REG_PDATA = const(0x1F)
_BME680_REG_TDATA = const(0x22)
_BME680_REG_HDATA = const(0x25)

_BME680_SAMPLERATES = (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16)
_BME680_FILTERSIZES = (0, 1, 3, 7, 15, 31, 63, 127)

_BME680_RUNGAS = const(0x10)

_LOOKUP_TABLE_1 = (2147483647.0, 2147483647.0, 2147483647.0, 2147483647.0, 2147483647.0,
                   2126008810.0, 2147483647.0, 2130303777.0, 2147483647.0, 2147483647.0,
                   2143188679.0, 2136746228.0, 2147483647.0, 2126008810.0, 2147483647.0,
                   2147483647.0)

_LOOKUP_TABLE_2 = (4096000000.0, 2048000000.0, 1024000000.0, 512000000.0, 255744255.0, 127110228.0,
                   64000000.0, 32258064.0, 16016016.0, 8000000.0, 4000000.0, 2000000.0, 1000000.0,
                   500000.0, 250000.0, 125000.0)


def _read24(arr):
    """Parse an unsigned 24-bit value as a floating point and return it."""
    ret = 0.0
    #print([hex(i) for i in arr])
    for b in arr:
        ret *= 256.0
        ret += float(b & 0xFF)
    return ret


class Adafruit_BME680:
    """Driver from BME680 air quality sensor

       :param int refresh_rate: Maximum number of readings per second. Faster property reads
         will be from the previous reading."""
    def __init__(self, *, refresh_rate=10):
        """Check the BME680 was found, read the coefficients and enable the sensor for continuous
           reads."""
        self._write(_BME680_REG_SOFTRESET, [0xB6])
        time.sleep(0.005)

        # Check device ID.
        chip_id = self._read_byte(_BME680_REG_CHIPID)
        if chip_id != _BME680_CHIPID:
            raise RuntimeError('Failed to find BME680! Chip ID 0x%x' % chip_id)

        self._read_calibration()

        # set up heater
        self._write(_BME680_BME680_RES_HEAT_0, [0x73])
        self._write(_BME680_BME680_GAS_WAIT_0, [0x65])

        self.sea_level_pressure = 1013.25
        """Pressure in hectoPascals at sea level. Used to calibrate ``altitude``."""

        # Default oversampling and filter register values.
        self._pressure_oversample = 0b011
        self._temp_oversample = 0b100
        self._humidity_oversample = 0b010
        self._filter = 0b010

        self._adc_pres = None
        self._adc_temp = None
        self._adc_hum = None
        self._adc_gas = None
        self._gas_range = None
        self._t_fine = None

        self._last_reading = time.ticks_ms()
        self._min_refresh_time = 1000 // refresh_rate

    @property
    def pressure_oversample(self):
        """The oversampling for pressure sensor"""
        return _BME680_SAMPLERATES[self._pressure_oversample]

    @pressure_oversample.setter
    def pressure_oversample(self, sample_rate):
        if sample_rate in _BME680_SAMPLERATES:
            self._pressure_oversample = _BME680_SAMPLERATES.index(sample_rate)
        else:
            raise RuntimeError("Invalid oversample")

    @property
    def humidity_oversample(self):
        """The oversampling for humidity sensor"""
        return _BME680_SAMPLERATES[self._humidity_oversample]

    @humidity_oversample.setter
    def humidity_oversample(self, sample_rate):
        if sample_rate in _BME680_SAMPLERATES:
            self._humidity_oversample = _BME680_SAMPLERATES.index(sample_rate)
        else:
            raise RuntimeError("Invalid oversample")

    @property
    def temperature_oversample(self):
        """The oversampling for temperature sensor"""
        return _BME680_SAMPLERATES[self._temp_oversample]

    @temperature_oversample.setter
    def temperature_oversample(self, sample_rate):
        if sample_rate in _BME680_SAMPLERATES:
            self._temp_oversample = _BME680_SAMPLERATES.index(sample_rate)
        else:
            raise RuntimeError("Invalid oversample")

    @property
    def filter_size(self):
        """The filter size for the built in IIR filter"""
        return _BME680_FILTERSIZES[self._filter]

    @filter_size.setter
    def filter_size(self, size):
        if size in _BME680_FILTERSIZES:
            self._filter = _BME680_FILTERSIZES[size]
        else:
            raise RuntimeError("Invalid size")

    @property
    def temperature(self):
        """The compensated temperature in degrees celsius."""
        self._perform_reading()
        calc_temp = (((self._t_fine * 5) + 128) / 256)
        return calc_temp / 100

    @property
    def pressure(self):
        """The barometric pressure in hectoPascals"""
        self._perform_reading()
        var1 = (self._t_fine / 2) - 64000
        var2 = ((var1 / 4) * (var1 / 4)) / 2048
        var2 = (var2 * self._pressure_calibration[5]) / 4
        var2 = var2 + (var1 * self._pressure_calibration[4] * 2)
        var2 = (var2 / 4) + (self._pressure_calibration[3] * 65536)
        var1 = (((((var1 / 4) * (var1 / 4)) / 8192) *
                (self._pressure_calibration[2] * 32) / 8) +
                ((self._pressure_calibration[1] * var1) / 2))
        var1 = var1 / 262144
        var1 = ((32768 + var1) * self._pressure_calibration[0]) / 32768
        calc_pres = 1048576 - self._adc_pres
        calc_pres = (calc_pres - (var2 / 4096)) * 3125
        calc_pres = (calc_pres / var1) * 2
        var1 = (self._pressure_calibration[8] * (((calc_pres / 8) * (calc_pres / 8)) / 8192)) / 4096
        var2 = ((calc_pres / 4) * self._pressure_calibration[7]) / 8192
        var3 = (((calc_pres / 256) ** 3) * self._pressure_calibration[9]) / 131072
        calc_pres += ((var1 + var2 + var3 + (self._pressure_calibration[6] * 128)) / 16)
        return calc_pres/100

    @property
    def humidity(self):
        """The relative humidity in RH %"""
        self._perform_reading()
        temp_scaled = ((self._t_fine * 5) + 128) / 256
        var1 = ((self._adc_hum - (self._humidity_calibration[0] * 16)) -
                ((temp_scaled * self._humidity_calibration[2]) / 200))
        var2 = (self._humidity_calibration[1] *
                (((temp_scaled * self._humidity_calibration[3]) / 100) +
                 (((temp_scaled * ((temp_scaled * self._humidity_calibration[4]) / 100)) /
                   64) / 100) + 16384)) / 1024
        var3 = var1 * var2
        var4 = self._humidity_calibration[5] * 128
        var4 = (var4 + ((temp_scaled * self._humidity_calibration[6]) / 100)) / 16
        var5 = ((var3 / 16384) * (var3 / 16384)) / 1024
        var6 = (var4 * var5) / 2
        calc_hum = (((var3 + var6) / 1024) * 1000) / 4096
        calc_hum /= 1000  # get back to RH

        if calc_hum > 100:
            calc_hum = 100
        if calc_hum < 0:
            calc_hum = 0
        return calc_hum

    @property
    def altitude(self):
        """The altitude based on current ``pressure`` vs the sea level pressure
           (``sea_level_pressure``) - which you must enter ahead of time)"""
        pressure = self.pressure # in Si units for hPascal
        return 44330 * (1.0 - math.pow(pressure / self.sea_level_pressure, 0.1903))

    @property
    def gas(self):
        """The gas resistance in ohms"""
        self._perform_reading()
        var1 = ((1340 + (5 * self._sw_err)) * (_LOOKUP_TABLE_1[self._gas_range])) / 65536
        var2 = ((self._adc_gas * 32768) - 16777216) + var1
        var3 = (_LOOKUP_TABLE_2[self._gas_range] * var1) / 512
        calc_gas_res = (var3 + (var2 / 2)) / var2
        return int(calc_gas_res)

    def _perform_reading(self):
        """Perform a single-shot reading from the sensor and fill internal data structure for
           calculations"""
        expired = time.ticks_diff(self._last_reading, time.ticks_ms()) * time.ticks_diff(0, 1)
        if 0 <= expired < self._min_refresh_time:
            time.sleep_ms(self._min_refresh_time - expired)

        # set filter
        self._write(_BME680_REG_CONFIG, [self._filter << 2])
        # turn on temp oversample & pressure oversample
        self._write(_BME680_REG_CTRL_MEAS,
                    [(self._temp_oversample << 5)|(self._pressure_oversample << 2)])
        # turn on humidity oversample
        self._write(_BME680_REG_CTRL_HUM, [self._humidity_oversample])
        # gas measurements enabled
        self._write(_BME680_REG_CTRL_GAS, [_BME680_RUNGAS])

        ctrl = self._read_byte(_BME680_REG_CTRL_MEAS)
        ctrl = (ctrl & 0xFC) | 0x01  # enable single shot!
        self._write(_BME680_REG_CTRL_MEAS, [ctrl])
        new_data = False
        while not new_data:
            data = self._read(_BME680_REG_MEAS_STATUS, 15)
            new_data = data[0] & 0x80 != 0
            time.sleep(0.005)
        self._last_reading = time.ticks_ms()

        self._adc_pres = _read24(data[2:5]) / 16
        self._adc_temp = _read24(data[5:8]) / 16
        self._adc_hum = struct.unpack('>H', bytes(data[8:10]))[0]
        self._adc_gas = int(struct.unpack('>H', bytes(data[13:15]))[0] / 64)
        self._gas_range = data[14] & 0x0F

        var1 = (self._adc_temp / 8) - (self._temp_calibration[0] * 2)
        var2 = (var1 * self._temp_calibration[1]) / 2048
        var3 = ((var1 / 2) * (var1 / 2)) / 4096
        var3 = (var3 * self._temp_calibration[2] * 16) / 16384

        self._t_fine = int(var2 + var3)

    def _read_calibration(self):
        """Read & save the calibration coefficients"""
        coeff = self._read(_BME680_BME680_COEFF_ADDR1, 25)
        coeff += self._read(_BME680_BME680_COEFF_ADDR2, 16)

        coeff = list(struct.unpack('<hbBHhbBhhbbHhhBBBHbbbBbHhbb', bytes(coeff[1:39])))
        # print("\n\n",coeff)
        coeff = [float(i) for i in coeff]
        self._temp_calibration = [coeff[x] for x in [23, 0, 1]]
        self._pressure_calibration = [coeff[x] for x in [3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 9, 12, 13, 14]]
        self._humidity_calibration = [coeff[x] for x in [17, 16, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22]]
        self._gas_calibration = [coeff[x] for x in [25, 24, 26]]

        # flip around H1 & H2
        self._humidity_calibration[1] *= 16
        self._humidity_calibration[1] += self._humidity_calibration[0] % 16
        self._humidity_calibration[0] /= 16

        self._heat_range = (self._read_byte(0x02) & 0x30) / 16
        self._heat_val = self._read_byte(0x00)
        self._sw_err = (self._read_byte(0x04) & 0xF0) / 16

    def _read_byte(self, register):
        """Read a byte register value and return it"""
        return self._read(register, 1)[0]

    def _read(self, register, length):
        raise NotImplementedError()

    def _write(self, register, values):
        raise NotImplementedError()

class BME680_I2C(Adafruit_BME680):
    """Driver for I2C connected BME680.

        :param i2c: I2C device object
        :param int address: I2C device address
        :param bool debug: Print debug statements when True.
        :param int refresh_rate: Maximum number of readings per second. Faster property reads
          will be from the previous reading."""
    def __init__(self, i2c, address=0x77, debug=False, *, refresh_rate=10):
        """Initialize the I2C device at the 'address' given"""
        self._i2c = i2c
        self._address = address
        self._debug = debug
        super().__init__(refresh_rate=refresh_rate)

    def _read(self, register, length):
        """Returns an array of 'length' bytes from the 'register'"""
        result = bytearray(length)
        self._i2c.readfrom_mem_into(self._address, register & 0xff, result)
        if self._debug:
            print("\t${:x} read ".format(register), " ".join(["{:02x}".format(i) for i in result]))
        return result

    def _write(self, register, values):
        """Writes an array of 'length' bytes to the 'register'"""
        if self._debug:
            print("\t${:x} write".format(register), " ".join(["{:02x}".format(i) for i in values]))
        for value in values:
            self._i2c.writeto_mem(self._address, register, bytearray([value & 0xFF]))
            register += 1


class BME680_SPI(Adafruit_BME680):
    """Driver for SPI connected BME680.

        :param spi: SPI device object, configured
        :param cs: Chip Select Pin object, configured to OUT mode
        :param bool debug: Print debug statements when True.
        :param int refresh_rate: Maximum number of readings per second. Faster property reads
          will be from the previous reading.
      """

    def __init__(self, spi, cs, debug=False, *, refresh_rate=10):
        self._spi = spi
        self._cs = cs
        self._debug = debug
        self._cs(1)
        super().__init__(refresh_rate=refresh_rate)

    def _read(self, register, length):
        if register != _BME680_REG_PAGE_SELECT:
            # _BME680_REG_PAGE_SELECT exists in both SPI memory pages
            # For all other registers, we must set the correct memory page
            self._set_spi_mem_page(register)
        register = (register | 0x80) & 0xFF  # Read single, bit 7 high.

        try:
            self._cs(0)
            self._spi.write(bytearray([register]))  # pylint: disable=no-member
            result = bytearray(length)
            self._spi.readinto(result)  # pylint: disable=no-member
            if self._debug:
                print("\t${:x} read ".format(register), " ".join(["{:02x}".format(i) for i in result]))
        except Exception as e:
            print (e)
            result = None
        finally:
            self._cs(1)
        return result

    def _write(self, register, values):
        if register != _BME680_REG_PAGE_SELECT:
            # _BME680_REG_PAGE_SELECT exists in both SPI memory pages
            # For all other registers, we must set the correct memory page
            self._set_spi_mem_page(register)
        register &= 0x7F  # Write, bit 7 low.
        try:
            self._cs(0)
            buffer = bytearray(2 * len(values))
            for i, value in enumerate(values):
                buffer[2 * i] = register + i
                buffer[2 * i + 1] = value & 0xFF
            self._spi.write(buffer)  # pylint: disable=no-member
            if self._debug:
                print("\t${:x} write".format(register), " ".join(["{:02x}".format(i) for i in values]))
        except Exception as e:
            print (e)
        finally:
            self._cs(1)

    def _set_spi_mem_page(self, register):
        spi_mem_page = 0x00
        if register < 0x80:
            spi_mem_page = 0x10
        self._write(_BME680_REG_PAGE_SELECT, [spi_mem_page])

the driver named adafruit_bme680.py is the circuitpython version. I’m not sure what that would do on a micropython image.

Works now, thx @alphanumeric for putting me on the right track. Beginning of the code is now:

import time
from breakout_bme68x import BreakoutBME68X, STATUS_HEATER_STABLE
import pimoroni_i2c
import badger2040
import machine


badger = badger2040.Badger2040()
badger.update_speed(badger2040.UPDATE_FAST)

PINS_PICO_EXPLORER = {"sda": 4, "scl": 5}

TEXT_SIZE = 0.7

button_a = machine.Pin(badger2040.BUTTON_A, machine.Pin.IN, machine.Pin.PULL_DOWN)
i2c = pimoroni_i2c.PimoroniI2C(**PINS_PICO_EXPLORER)
bme = BreakoutBME68X(i2c,0x77)

which gives:

26.45c, 102018.05Pa, 42.87%, 73687.21 Ohms, Heater: Unstable
26.5 102018.0 42.9
26.43c, 102022.47Pa, 42.76%, 4084.60 Ohms, Heater: Stable
26.4 102022.5 42.8
26.41c, 102030.47Pa, 42.75%, 4156.59 Ohms, Heater: Stable
26.4 102030.5 42.8
26.40c, 102025.16Pa, 42.69%, 4570.29 Ohms, Heater: Stable
26.4 102025.2 42.7
26.37c, 102023.23Pa, 42.66%, 4954.31 Ohms, Heater: Stable
26.4 102023.2 42.7

1 Like

I made a start on a BME68x Badger weather station a while ago - didn’t quite get as far as adding it to the examples but it’s here if you’d like to give it a go:

I seem to remember it does lots of averaging so the screen doesn’t need to update very often.

@JinjiroSan Glad to see you got it working. Pimoroni’s BME680 Micro Python library was already on your Badger. And will work with Adafruits BME680. As you figured out, the Adafruit one uses 0x77 for its i2c address. While Pimoroni’s uses 0x76. I missed that bit of info first time around, but see it now.
bme = BreakoutBME68X(i2c) # Pimoroni BME680
bme = BreakoutBME68X(i2c,0x77) # Adafruit BME680

Cool thx, when I add the code as-is from your posted gist link, I get the following error message:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File “”, line 16, in
RuntimeError: BreakoutBME68X: breakout not found when initialising

Also, when I change the i2c = PimoroniI2C(**PINS_BREAKOUT_GARDEN) to i2c = PimoroniI2C(**PINS_PICO_EXPLORER), same result.

but, when I change the first lines to this, it works:

import badger2040
import time
from breakout_bme68x import BreakoutBME68X
import pimoroni_i2c

display = badger2040.Badger2040()

WIDTH = badger2040.WIDTH
HEIGHT = badger2040.HEIGHT

PINS_PICO_EXPLORER = {"sda": 4, "scl": 5}

i2c = pimoroni_i2c.PimoroniI2C(**PINS_PICO_EXPLORER)
bme = BreakoutBME68X(i2c,0x77)
1 Like

bme = BreakoutBME68X(i2c) uses address 0x76 by default. That won’t work with the Adafruit BME680.
bme = BreakoutBME68X(i2c, 0x77) switches it to use address 0x77 instead, which is what you need for the Adafruit breakout to work.

yes and changing to sda:4, scl:5

I go with just these two lines.

from pimoroni_i2c import PimoroniI2C
i2c = PimoroniI2C(sda=(4), scl=(5))

No need for the PINS_BREAKOUT_GARDEN etc stuff.

Ah yes, that’s even shorter :)

I’ve been meaning to ask, is there a purpose/benefit to using “from pimoroni_i2c import PimoroniI2C” vs just “import PimoroniI2C” on a platform like badger2040 (e.g. does it load less so it’s saving resources. Is it necessary on this platform)?

For me, as I often build an equivalent setup from Breakout Garden parts. I may not be using an Explorer or even a Breakout Garden. So I cut to the chase, as they say.
On my Tufty, I just find it easier and less confusing to use simpler code. I have many many builds with breakouts added that use i2c. No sockets involved.
Is it more efficient? That I don’t know? It’s what works for me. =)